Year of Deputation in Islam
Year of Deputation
After the conquest of Meccah, Medina became the capital of Islam. Many deputations from all over Arabia poured into Madinah.
The deputations used to stay in Medina mostly in Masjid for some time and learnt Islam from the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) and his companions who would host these deputations, and teach the visitors about Islam. A few important deputations amongst them were; the deputation of Thaqeef, the deputation of Banu Tamim and the deputation of Banu Amir.
The Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) performed Hajj once in his life time. In the 10th year of hijra the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) proclaimed his intentions of going on Hajj. He sent messengers to all parts of Arabia asking them to join him in his great pilgrimage.
The people responded to his call in tens of thousands. Men and women from all Arabia Marched to Medina and assembled to go on Hajj with the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H). The number exceeded one hundred thousand people.
The Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) left Madinah on 26th Zul-Qa’dah with his companions. After going six miles, he put on Ihram at Dul-Hulaifah; this was followed by all of his companions. On the 5th of Zul-Hijjah, the Holy Prophet reached Makkah. The Holy Prophet stayed in Makkah until 8th Dhil Hajj. On the 8th of Zul-Hijjah, the Holy Prophet left Makkah for Mina and passed the night there. From Mina he left for ‘Arafat on the morning of 9th Dhil-Hajj.
Sermon of Farewell Pilgrimage
In the afternoon of 9th Dhil-hajj, the Holy prophet rode his camel Qaswa, and gave his historical address in a gathering of more than 100,000 people. The following sermon was delivered:
“O People, lend me an attentive ear, for I know not whether after this year, I shall ever be amongst you again. Therefore listen to what I am saying to you very carefully and take these words to those who could not be present here today”.
What does Prophet Mohammad (P.B.U.H) said about respect of life and honour of people and Condemnation of usury?
“O people, just as you regard this month, this day, this city as Sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your Lord, and that He will indeed reckon your deeds. Allah has forbidden you to take usury (interest), therefore all interest obligation shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer any inequity. Allah has Judged that there shall be no interest and that all the interest due to Abbas ibn Abd Al-Muttalib (Prophet’s uncle) shall henceforth be waived…”.
He (P.B.U.H) has further said:
“Beware of Satan, for the safety of your religion. He has lost all hope that he will ever be able to lead you astray in big things, so beware of following him in small things”.
What he said about Dignity of women
Prophet Mohammad (P.B.U.H) has also said about the dignity of women in his following words:
“O people, it is true that you have certain rights with regard to your women, but they also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them as your wives only under Allah’s trust and with His permission. If they abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers. And it is your right that they do not make friends with any one of whom you do not approve, as well as never to be unchaste”.
What Prophet told about worshipping Allah alone and equality?
Prophet Mohammad (P.B.U.H) has always taught the lesson of one God and he has always tried to make people aware of the fact of oneness of God who is the only Creator of this entire universe. He has also recalled people about this in his last sermon as well:
“O people, listen to me in earnest, worship Allah, say your five daily prayers (Salah), fast during the month of Ramadan, and give your wealth in Zakat. Perform Hajj if you can afford to”.
He has further said:
“All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over black nor a black has any superiority over white except bypiety (taqwa) and good action. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not, therefore, do injustice to yourselves. Remember, one day you will appear before Allah and answer your deeds. So beware, do not stray from the path of righteousness after I am gone”.
Last words of the holy Prophet about Quran and Sunnah as a source of guidance
“O people, no prophet or apostle will come after me and no new faith will be born. Reason well, therefore, O people, and understand words which I convey to you. I leave behind me two things, the Qu'ran and my example, the Sunnah and if you follow these you will never go astray. All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others and those to others again; and may the last ones understand my words better than those who listen to me directly. Be my witness, O Allah, that I have conveyed your message to your people”.
[Reference: See Al-Bukhari, Hadith 1623, 1626, 6361) Sahih of Imam Muslim also refers to this sermon in Hadith number 98. Imam al-Tirmidhi has mentioned this sermon in Hadith nos. 1628, 2046, 2085. Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal has given us the longest and perhaps the most complete version of this sermon in his Masnud, Hadith no. 19774]